Morphological and structural behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of WO3: crystallization of the oxide composite system†
Composite TiO2–WO3 oxide materials were prepared by a single pot microemulsion method and studied during calcination treatments under dry air in order to analyze the influence of tungsten on the behavior of the dominant titania component. To this end, the surface and bulk morphological and structural evolution of the solid precursors was studied using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. In the calcination process, differences in the dominant titania component behavior appeared as a function of the W/Ti atomic ratio of the precursor. First, the crystallization of the anatase phase is affected by tungsten through an effect on the primary particle size growth. Furthermore, such an effect also influences the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The study provides evidence that the W–Ti interaction develops differently for a low/high W/Ti atomic ratio below/above 0.25 affecting fundamentally the above-mentioned anatase primary particle size growth process and the subsequent formation of the rutile phase and showing that addition of tungsten provides a way to control morphology and phase behavior in anatase-based oxide complex materials.