Triplet–triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications†
Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA–photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.