Structure and stability of two polymorphs of creatine and its monohydrate†
An experimental search for crystalline forms of creatine including a variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction study has produced three polymorphs and a formic acid solvate. The crystal structures of creatine forms I and II were determined from X-ray powder diffraction data plus the creatine formic acid (1 : 1) solvate structure was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Evidence of a third polymorphic form of creatine obtained by rapid desolvation of creatine monohydrate is also presented. The results highlight the role of automated parallel crystallisation, slurry experiments and VT-XRPD as powerful techniques for effective physical form screening. They also highlight the importance of various complementary analytical techniques in structural characterisation and in achieving better understanding of the relationship between various solid-state forms. The structural relationships between various solid-state forms of creatine using the XPac method provided a rationale for the different relative stabilities of forms I and II of creatine with respect to the monohydrate form.
- This article is part of the themed collection: International Year of Crystallography Celebration: Europe and South Africa