A simple method for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and its derivatives in canned fish
A simple extraction method was developed to determine bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and its derivatives in canned fish. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was employed to measure these substances. The QuEChERS method was investigated to seek out a fast, cheap and easy technique for sample preparation. The sorbent, such as primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18), was applied in the clean-up step, but it did not demonstrate any advantages to the peak shape compared with extraction without the sorbent. The sample preparation method was optimized using different extraction solvents and salts in order to reduce co-extracted matrix components and improve phase separation. The extraction results from the QuEChERS method were not the best obtained by using recovery comparison; therefore, the final sample preparation method was the use of acetonitrile with the addition of sodium chloride only. The extraction method was evaluated by using fortified samples at three concentration levels (0.10, 9.00 and 18.0 mg kg−1); extraction recoveries were in the range of 95 to 99%, with good repeatability (%RSD ≤ 9). Detection limits and quantitation limits were 0.01–0.02 and 0.03–0.05 mg kg−1, respectively. To compensate for the matrix effect, the matrix-matched calibrations were prepared and an excellent regression (r2 ≥ 0.997) was obtained. This study demonstrated a suitable extraction method for the determination of BADGE and its derivatives, with less labor, time and solvent consumption. The final method was also applied to real samples collected from local markets and the concentrations were found in legal limits.