Polymer–graphite composite: a versatile use and throw plastic chip electrode†
We report an efficient plastic chip electrode (PCE) fabricated from a composite of graphite and poly(methyl methacrylate) by a simple solution casting method and promoted as an economically inexpensive, multipurpose disposable electrode for various applications. The TEM images of the filler (graphite) show that the material consists of single, as well as multi-layers. Thus, the self-standing and arid electrodes prepared were characterized for their material properties such as, microscopy (SEM and AFM), as well as thermal properties (TGA), mechanical (tensile strength) and electrical properties. A set of physical parameters were derived from these characterizations for sustainability of these electrodes in harsh off-laboratory conditions. The utility of these mechanically stable, bulk-conducting and high surface area electrodes were demonstrated in various well understood electrochemical protocols, such as cyclic voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, electropolymerization, electrowinning and amperometric sensing. The voltammetry data were compared with the data recorded on a conventional glassy carbon electrode.