Size-dependent nanographene oxide as a platform for efficient carboplatin release†
Nanographene oxides (NGO) with well-defined sizes were produced from graphite via chemical exfoliation and separated into three different size distributions (300 nm, 200 nm, and 100 nm) using intense sonication and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Prior to carboplatin (CP) loading, the NGO was functionalized with zero generation polyamidoamide (PAMAM) which renders improved dispersibility and stability of the nanocarrier platform in physiological media. Cell viability tests were conducted on pristine NGO samples with average widths of 200 nm and 300 nm that showed a cytotoxic effect on HeLa cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells at low (50 μg ml−1) and high (100 μg ml−1) concentrations, while the pristine NGO sample with an average width of 100 nm revealed no significant cytotoxicity at 50 μg ml−1, and only recorded a 10% level at 100 μg ml−1. After functionalization with PAMAM, the carrier was found to be able to deliver carboplatin to the cancer cells, by enhancing the drug anticancer efficiency. Moreover, the carboplatin loaded NGO carrier shows no significant effect on the viability of mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) even at high concentration (100 μg ml−1).