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Issue 7, 2013
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High performance LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

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Abstract

The LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C composite was prepared by partial substitution of vanadium with manganese and in situ carbon coating of LiVPO4F via a modified carbothermal reduction route. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns shows that the crystalline lattice is smaller than the value reported in the literature. While electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on a selected area of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrates that Mn is successfully doped into LiVPO4F, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates the co-existence of Mn3+ and Mn4+. With ∼6.29 wt% residual carbon (estimated by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) included, the specific discharge capacity of LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C at 0.1 C and 6 C could reach 138 mA h g−1 and 98 mA h g−1, respectively. The capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 1 C is about 90%, corresponding to only 0.01% loss per cycle. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) is significantly reduced by Mn substitution, and the lithium diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 1.34 × 10−13 cm2 s−1, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of pristine LiVPO4F/C. Moreover, LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C retains 74% of its initial capacity after 500 cycles at 1 C at 65 °C, indicating its potential application at high temperatures.

Graphical abstract: High performance LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Sep 2012, accepted on 04 Dec 2012 and first published on 14 Dec 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2TA01338J
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013,1, 2501-2507

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    High performance LiV0.96Mn0.04PO4F/C cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    X. Sun, Y. Xu, M. Jia, P. Ding, Y. Liu and K. Chen, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 2501
    DOI: 10.1039/C2TA01338J

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