Large-scale synthesis of hexagonal corundum-type In2O3 by ball milling with enhanced lithium storage capabilities
Hexagonal corundum-type indium oxide (h-In2O3) is the structure that normally exists in a high-temperature and pressure environment. This structure has been realised from ambient environment stable cubic indium oxide (c-In2O3) using a high-energy ball milling approach at room temperature, in which the rearrangements of InO6 polyhedral units take place via plastic deformation and large defect creation during the milling process. More interestingly, the high-temperature h-In2O3 structure as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries exhibits lithium storage capabilities enhanced by up to 8 times compared to the c-In2O3 phase. This study demonstrates an effective ambient environmental approach for the production of high-pressure/temperature structures, h-In2O3, which may be extended to explore new phases and novel properties in other oxide systems.