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Issue 46, 2013
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Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

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Abstract

The production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from agarose catalyzed by metal chlorides was studied in aqueous phase. A series of metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, CrCl3, CuCl2 and FeCl3, were comparatively investigated to catalyze agarose degradation for the production of 5-HMF at temperatures of 180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C, catalyst concentration of 0.5% (w/w), 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w), time of 0–50 min, and substrate concentration of 2% (w/w). Results revealed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2, resulted in higher 5-HMF yields from agarose with negligible amount of byproducts, such as levulinic acid and lactic acid, derived from further degradation reactions. 1% (w/w) MgCl2 was the most efficient catalyst among the tested metal chlorides for 5-HMF production from agarose and resulted in both the highest yield of 40.7% and highest selectivity of 49.1% at 200 °C for 35 min. The cleavage of C–O–C bond in agarose with subsequent isomerization of galactose to its ketose was considered as a possible mechanism for formation of 5-HMF under MgCl2 catalyzed conditions.

Graphical abstract: Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

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Article information


Submitted
28 Jun 2013
Accepted
04 Oct 2013
First published
04 Oct 2013

RSC Adv., 2013,3, 24090-24098
Article type
Paper

Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

L. Yan, D. D. Laskar, S. Lee and B. Yang, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 24090
DOI: 10.1039/C3RA43293A

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