Nanostructured TiO2 for energy conversion and storage
Nanostructured TiO2 possesses unique optical and physical properties as well as exhibiting quantum confinement effects and has attracted much attention in energy conversion and storage research. The energy related applications of nanostructured TiO2 can be grouped into four main categories: lithium-ion batteries, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), fuel cells, and super-capacitors. Nanostructured TiO2 with high crystallinity and/or a porous structure exhibits enhanced electron or ion transfer properties, enabling the fast diffusion of electrolytes, and consequently electrochemical processes proceed with high efficiency due to accelerated molecular adsorption. Its unique optical properties lead to improved photovoltaic performance and its bifunctional mechanism produces anti-poisoning effects on catalysts. This review discusses recent scientific and technological advances of nanostructured TiO2 from the perspectives of energy conversion and storage.