Voltammetry of proteins at liquid–liquid interfaces
The voltammetric behaviour of proteins at interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) is reviewed. This behaviour is of interest for a number of reasons, including the basis of label-free detection methods and the understanding of the stability of biopharmaceutical and food formulations. The review discusses electrochemical strategies for protein and polypeptide detection, and the mechanisms involved in protein detection at the ITIES. Results obtained by DC and AC voltammetry are included together with data from other complementary techniques.