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Issue 7, 2013
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New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium

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Abstract

We review our recent research into n-type doping of Ge for nanoelectronics and integrated photonics. We demonstrate a doping method in ultra-high vacuum to achieve high electron concentrations in Ge while maintaining atomic-level control of the doping process. We integrated this doping technique with ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope lithography and femtosecond laser ablation micron-scale lithography, and demonstrated basic components of donor-based nanoelectronic circuitry such as wires and tunnel gaps. By repetition of controlled doping cycles we have shown that stacking of multiple Ge:P two-dimensional electron gases results in high electron densities in Ge (>1020 cm−3). Because of the strong vertical electron confinement, closely stacked 2D layers – although interacting – maintain their individuality in terms of electron transport. These results bode well towards the realization of nanoscale 3D epitaxial circuits in Ge comprising stacked 2DEGs and/or atomic-scale Ge:P devices with confinement in more dimensions.

Graphical abstract: New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium

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Article information


Submitted
23 Dec 2012
Accepted
18 Feb 2013
First published
19 Feb 2013

Nanoscale, 2013,5, 2600-2615
Article type
Feature Article

New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse and M. Y. Simmons, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 2600
DOI: 10.1039/C3NR34258A

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