Frequency spectroscopy of irreversible electrochemical nucleation kinetics on the nanoscale†
An approach is developed for probing the thermodynamics and kinetics of irreversible electrochemical reactions on solid surfaces based on local frequency-voltage spectroscopy. For a model Li-ion conductor surface, two regimes for bias-controlled behavior are demonstrated and ascribed to the difference in the critical nucleus size. The electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the tip-surface junction are analyzed. These studies suggest an experimental pathway for exploring local electrochemical activity in solids.