Stimulus-responsive graphene systems towards actuator applications
The rise of graphene has triggered the fast increasing research upsurge in both controllable synthesis of graphene and unique applications associated with its miraculous properties. In particular, graphene-based smart devices that can automatically respond to external stimulations are among those attracting our most attention. In this featured article, we summarize some of the recent advances in stimulus-responsive graphene actuation systems contributed by us and others, and discuss the different roles that graphene plays in various actuation circumstances such as under electrical, chemical, photonic, thermal and other stimuli. Impressive progress including graphene-based robots is also presented, demonstrating the great prospects of graphene actuation systems in a wide range of applications including sensors, switches, artificial muscles, nano/micro electromechanical devices, etc.