New trends in the synthesis of crystalline microporous materials
Zeolites and related microporous materials form the most important class of microporous solids due to their practical importance in different technological areas. In spite of the extensive research carried out in previous decades, it is surprising to realize that there is still space for innovation in this area, making microporous crystalline solids special among all classes of materials known today. We illustrate here the most recent advances in the field, focusing on the research topics that, in our opinion, are most likely to provide results of practical interest. Three main topics are discussed: (1) the synthesis of new framework topologies, with particular attention to those having extra-large and/or multidimensional pore systems; (2) the modification of the morphological and textural properties of known zeolites, including the discussion on two-dimensional structures and on the synthesis of nanocrystals and of the hierarchical porous structures; (3) the still poorly explored field of silica-based hybrid organic–inorganic porous crystalline materials (hybrid zeolites). For each of these topics, a selection of the most relevant results reported in the literature is provided together with some considerations on the potentialities and future perspectives.