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Issue 23, 2013
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Synthon identification in co-crystals and polymorphs with IR spectroscopy. Primary amides as a case study

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Abstract

IR spectroscopy has been widely employed to distinguish between different crystal forms such as polymorphs, clathrates, hydrates and co-crystals. IR has been used to monitor co-crystal formation and single synthon detection. In this work, we have developed a strategy to identify multiple supramolecular synthons in polymorphs and co-crystals with this technique. The identification of multiple synthons in co-crystals with IR is difficult for several reasons. In this paper, a four step method involving well assigned IR spectral markers that correspond to bonds in a synthon is used. IR spectra of three forms of the co-crystal system, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid:4,4′-bipyridine (2 : 1), show clear differences that may be attributed to differences in the synthon combinations existing in the forms (synthon polymorphism). These differences were picked out from the three IR spectra and the bands analysed and assigned to synthons. Our method first identifies IR marker bands corresponding to (covalent) bonds in known/model crystals and then the markers are mapped in known co-crystals having single synthons. Thereafter, the IR markers are queried in known co-crystals with multiple synthons. Finally they are queried in unknown co-crystals with multiple synthons. In the last part of the study, the N–H stretching absorptions of primary amides that crystallize with the amide dimers linked in a ladder like chain show two specific absorptions which are used as marker absorptions and all variations of this band structure have been used to provide details on the environment around the dimer. The extended dimer can accordingly be easily distinguished from the isolated dimer.

Graphical abstract: Synthon identification in co-crystals and polymorphs with IR spectroscopy. Primary amides as a case study

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
14 Feb 2013
Accepted
28 Mar 2013
First published
02 Apr 2013

CrystEngComm, 2013,15, 4640-4654
Article type
Paper

Synthon identification in co-crystals and polymorphs with IR spectroscopy. Primary amides as a case study

A. Mukherjee, S. Tothadi, S. Chakraborty, S. Ganguly and G. R. Desiraju, CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 4640
DOI: 10.1039/C3CE40286J

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