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Issue 12, 2013
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Effect of heat treatment on properties of melt-grown bulk In2O3 single crystals

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Abstract

Melt-grown bulk In2O3 single crystals were utilized for systematic heat-treatment experiments, which we performed at temperatures of 200–1400 °C, for 2–300 h and in eight different atmospheres, from oxidizing through vacuum to reducing atmospheres. We found that melt-grown In2O3 single crystals are chemically stable up to 1200–1300 °C in neutral and oxidizing atmospheres and up to 1000 °C in vacuum but they readily decompose at 600 °C in a highly reducing atmosphere. Electron concentrations of as-grown In2O3 single crystals were just above 1018 cm−3, which decreased by one order of magnitude after annealing under non-reducing conditions. The electron mobility stayed between 140–180 cm2 V−1 s−1 as long as no decomposition occurred. On the other hand, annealing of the melt-grown In2O3 crystals in hydrogen-containing atmosphere led to an increase of the electron concentration by up to two orders of magnitude (1020 cm−3) accompanied by a mobility drop. Moreover, annealing conditions were identified, within which electron concentrations can be tuned quite precisely. Transmittance spectra revealed a sharp absorption edge at 440 nm. High transparency in the visible range was observed after annealing under non-reducing conditions, whereas in the near infrared region free-carrier absorption played a role in case of high electron concentrations. Further, a broad emission peak has been found by cathodoluminescence at RT in all melt-grown In2O3 crystals, which is independent of any annealing conditions.

Graphical abstract: Effect of heat treatment on properties of melt-grown bulk In2O3 single crystals

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Publication details

The article was received on 31 Aug 2012, accepted on 18 Oct 2012 and first published on 08 Nov 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2CE26413G
Citation: CrystEngComm, 2013,15, 2220-2226

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    Effect of heat treatment on properties of melt-grown bulk In2O3 single crystals

    Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, R. Uecker, D. Klimm and R. Fornari, CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 2220
    DOI: 10.1039/C2CE26413G

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