Rapid residue analysis of pyriproxyfen, avermectins and diflubenzuron in mushrooms by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry
A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron and avermectin residues in mushrooms and their substrates was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron and avermectin were extracted with acetonitrile and the purification procedure was carried out using primary-secondary amine (PSA). The determination of target compounds was achieved in less than 3.0 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+). Chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.2% formic acid. Average recoveries were in the range of 78.1–112.5% with the relative standard deviation values below 11.8% for all analytes. The limits of detection ranged from 0.016 to 1.5 μg kg−1, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.052 to 5 μg kg−1. The results of the method validation confirmed that this proposed method is convenient and reliable for the determination of pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron and avermectin residues in mushrooms and their substrates.