Iron-containing nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, and environmental applications
Available data on the iron-containing nanomaterials are reviewed. Main attention is paid to the following themes: synthetic methods, structures, composition and properties of the nano zerovalent iron (NZVI), and polymorphic forms of iron oxides and FeOOH. Synthetic methods summarized here include a series of physico-chemical methods such as microwave heating, electrodeposition, laser ablation, radiolytical techniques, arc discharge, metal-membrane incorporation, pyrolysis, combustion, reverse micelle and co-deposition routes. We have also included a few “greener” methods. Coated, doped, supported with polymers or inert inorganic materials, core–shell nanostructures, in particular those of iron and its oxides with gold, are discussed. Studies of remediation involving iron-containing nanomaterials are discussed and special attention is paid to the processes of remediation of organic contaminants (chlorine-containing pollutants, benzoic and formic acids, dyes) and inorganic cations (Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II)) and anions (nitrates, bromates, arsenates). Water disinfection (against viruses and bacteria), toxicity and risks of iron nanomaterials application are also examined.