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Issue 38, 2012
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Nontoxic concentrations of PEGylated graphene nanoribbons for selective cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy

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Abstract

Reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons functionalized by amphiphilic polyethylene glycol (rGONR–PEG) were applied to attach arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-based peptide and cyanine dye 3 (cy3) for targeting ανβ3 integrin receptors on human glioblastoma cell line U87MG and its selective fluorescence imaging, respectively. The rGONR–PEG suspension with a concentration of 100 μg mL−1 showed ∼14 and 2.4-fold higher near infrared (NIR) absorption at 808 nm than GONR (with dimensions of ∼80 nm × 1 μm) and rGO–PEG sheets (with lateral dimensions of ∼2 μm), respectively. The rGONR–PEG–cy3–RGD exhibited highly efficient NIR photothermal therapy performance (concentrations ≥1.0 μg mL−1 resulted in ≥97% cell destruction in vitro under 7.5 W cm−2 NIR irradiation for 8 min). However, the rGONR–PEG exhibited concentration-dependent cyto- and geno-toxicity, so that it initiated at 1.0 μg mL−1 and presented strong effects at concentrations ≥100 μg mL−1 (resulting in >72% cell destruction and >29% DNA fragmentation after 24 h in the dark). Therefore, the concentration of 1.0 μg mL−1 (with <11% cell destruction and 7% DNA fragmentation) is the most effective concentration which can present low cyto- and especially geno-toxic effects. This work can provide insights for simultaneously efficient and biocompatible applications of nano-sized graphene in future photothermal nanotherapy.

Graphical abstract: Nontoxic concentrations of PEGylated graphene nanoribbons for selective cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy

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Article information


Submitted
04 Jul 2012
Accepted
13 Aug 2012
First published
14 Aug 2012

J. Mater. Chem., 2012,22, 20626-20633
Article type
Paper

Nontoxic concentrations of PEGylated graphene nanoribbons for selective cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy

O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi and H. Emamy, J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 20626
DOI: 10.1039/C2JM34330D

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