Bacterial cellulose-collagen nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering
A nanocomposite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and type I collagen (COL) was evaluated for in vitro bone regeneration. BC membranes were modified by glycine esterification followed by cross-linking of type I collagen employing 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. Collagen incorporation was studied by spectroscopy analysis. X-Ray diffraction showed changes in the BC crystallinity after collagen incorporation. The elastic modulus and tensile strength for BC-COL decreased, while the strain at failure showed a slight increase, even after sterilization, as compared to pristine BC. Swelling tests and contact angle measurements were also performed. Cell culture experiments performed with osteogenic cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion of newborn rat calvarium revealed similar features of cell morphology for cultures grown on both membranes. Cell viability/proliferation was not different between BC and BC-COL membranes at day 10 and 14. The high total protein content and ALP activity at day 17 in cells cultured on BC-COL indicate that this composite allowed the development of the osteoblastic phenotype in vitro. Thus, BC-COL should be considered as alternative biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.