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Issue 4, 2011
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Antimicrobial mechanisms behind photodynamic effect in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

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Abstract

This study describes the use of methylene blue (MB) plus light (photodynamic inactivation, PDI) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to kill Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. When H2O2 was added to MB plus light there was an increased antimicrobial effect, which could be due to a change in the type of ROS generated or increased microbial uptake of MB. To clarify the mechanism, the production of ROS was investigated in the presence and absence of H2O2. It was observed that ROS production was almost inhibited by the presence of H2O2 when cells were not present. In addition, experiments using different sequence combinations of MB and H2O2 were performed and MB optical properties inside the cell were analyzed. Spectroscopy experiments suggested that the amount of MB was higher inside the cells when H2O2 was used before or simultaneously with PDI, and ROS formation inside C. albicanscells confirmed that ROS production is higher in the presence of H2O2. Moreover enzymatic reduction of MB by E. coli during photosensitizer uptake to the photochemically inactive leucoMB could be reversed by the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide, increasing ROS formation inside the microorganism. Therefore, the combination of a photosensitizer such as MB and H2O2 is an interesting approach to improve PDI efficiency.

Graphical abstract: Antimicrobial mechanisms behind photodynamic effect in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

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Publication details

The article was received on 01 Apr 2010, accepted on 08 Nov 2010 and first published on 02 Dec 2010


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C0PP00082E
Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011,10, 483-490

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    Antimicrobial mechanisms behind photodynamic effect in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

    A. S. Garcez, S. C. Núñez, M. S. Baptista, N. A. Daghastanli, R. Itri, M. R. Hamblin and M. S. Ribeiro, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011, 10, 483
    DOI: 10.1039/C0PP00082E

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