The impact of mesoporous silicon (PSi) particles—embedded either on the surface, or totally encapsulated within electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers—on its properties as a tissue engineering scaffold is assessed. Our findings suggest that the resorbable porous silicon component can sensitively accelerate the necessary calcification process in such composites. Calcium phosphate deposition on the scaffolds was measured via in vitro calcification assays both at acellular and cellular levels. Extensive attachment of fibroblasts, human adult mesenchymal stem cells, and mouse stromal cells to the scaffold were observed. Complementary cell differentiation assays and ultrastructural measurements were also carried out; the levels of alkaline phosphatase expression, a specific biomarker for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, show that the scaffolds have the ability to mediate such processes, and that the location of the Si plays a key role in levels of expression.
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