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Issue 3, 2011
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Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sanglifehrin A, a potent cyclophilin inhibitor

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Abstract

Sanglifehrin A (SFA), a potent cyclophilin inhibitor produced by Streptomyces flaveolus DSM 9954, bears a unique [5.5] spirolactam moiety conjugated with a 22-membered, highly functionalized macrolide through a linear carbon chain. SFA displays a diverse range of biological activities and offers significant therapeutic potential. However, the structural complexity of SFA poses a tremendous challenge for new analogue development via chemical synthesis. Based on a rational prediction of its biosynthetic origin, herein we report the cloning, sequencing and characterization of the gene cluster responsible for SFA biosynthesis. Analysis of the 92 776 bp contiguous DNA region reveals a mixed polyketide synthase (PKS)/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway which includes a variety of unique features for unusual PKS and NRPS building block formation. Our findings suggest that SFA biosynthesis requires a crotonyl-CoA reductase/carboxylase (CCR) for generation of the putative unusual PKS starter unit (2R)-2-ethylmalonamyl-CoA, an iterative type I PKS for the putative atypical extender unit (2S)-2-(2-oxo-butyl)malonyl-CoA and a phenylalanine hydroxylase for the NRPS extender unit (2S)-m-tyrosine. A spontaneous ketalization of significant note, may trigger spirolactam formation in a stereo-selective manner. This study provides a framework for the application of combinatorial biosynthesis methods in order to expand the structural diversity of SFA.

Graphical abstract: Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sanglifehrin A, a potent cyclophilin inhibitor

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
15 Oct 2010
Accepted
16 Nov 2010
First published
15 Dec 2010

Mol. BioSyst., 2011,7, 852-861
Article type
Paper

Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sanglifehrin A, a potent cyclophilin inhibitor

X. Qu, N. Jiang, F. Xu, L. Shao, G. Tang, B. Wilkinson and W. Liu, Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 852
DOI: 10.1039/C0MB00234H

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