Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 11, 2011
Previous Article Next Article

A comparison of satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of wheat-derived soft pretzels with or without soy

Author affiliations

Abstract

The consumption of nutrient-poor snack foods in Western diets is thought to be contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Soy offers unique potential to provide high quality protein, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals to snack foods to produce a more healthful nutritional profile. In this study, 27.3% of wheat flour was replaced with soy ingredients in a soft pretzel and evaluated for impact on satiety, glycemic index (GI), and insulinemic index (II). We first tested the soy pretzel for consumer acceptability by 51 untrained sensory panelists on a 9-point hedonic scale. Second, in a crossover trial, 20 healthy adults consumed soy and traditional pretzels (1000 kJ or 239 kcal each) after an overnight fast. They reported their levels of satiety on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) for 2 h postprandially. Third, 12 healthy, non-diabetic subjects consumed soy or traditional pretzels (50 ± 2 g available carbohydrates) to determine the GI and II of both products. Blood glucose and insulin responses were monitored for 2 h after consumption and compared to a glucose reference. It was found that a consumer-acceptable soy soft pretzel had a lower mean (±SD) GI than its traditional counterpart: 39.1 (±20.4) for soy and 66.4 (±15.3) for wheat, (p = 0.002). However, soy addition did not statistically affect II (p = 0.15), or satiety (p = 0.91). In conclusion, a nutrient-dense soy pretzel formulation with 27.3% of wheat flour replaced by soy ingredients had attenuated postprandial glycemia without significantly affecting insulinemia or satiety in healthy adults.

Graphical abstract: A comparison of satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of wheat-derived soft pretzels with or without soy

Back to tab navigation

Article information


Submitted
23 Jun 2011
Accepted
14 Sep 2011
First published
05 Oct 2011

Food Funct., 2011,2, 678-683
Article type
Paper

A comparison of satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of wheat-derived soft pretzels with or without soy

A. L. Simmons, C. K. Miller, S. K. Clinton and Y. Vodovotz, Food Funct., 2011, 2, 678
DOI: 10.1039/C1FO10125K

Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements