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Issue 2, 2011
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Synergistic effects of metal nanoparticles and a phenolic uncoupler using microdroplet-based two-dimensional approach

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Abstract

A droplet-based microfluidic technique for testing multiple reagent concentrations is presented. We used this experimental approach to study combined effects of gold (AuNP) and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with the phenolic uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with respect to the growth of Escherichia coli. In order to evaluate the toxicity of binary mixtures, we first encapsulated the E. colicells and particle mixtures inside the microdroplets using PEEK (polyetherketone) modules. Two-dimensional concentration spaces with about 500 well separated droplets were addressed. We subsequently analyzed the cell growth, the viability and the autofluorescence intensity (metabolic activity) of the bacteria with a micro-flow-through fluorometer and photometer. Dose-dependent synergistic effects were found for the binary mixture of AgNPs and DNP, which indicated a stronger interaction in the mixture than it was expected from effect summation. For the binary mixture of DNP and AuNPs in non-toxic concentrations, we found only weak synergistic effects at low DNP concentrations. Furthermore, the non-toxic tested AuNPs causes effect summation in the binary mixture with the phenolic uncoupler. In general, we demonstrated the efficiency of a droplet-based microfluidic system for fast high-throughput screenings of binary and multiple mixtures. This work also confirmed the relevance of highly resolved droplet-based assays for the miniaturization of ecotoxicological aquatic test systems.

Graphical abstract: Synergistic effects of metal nanoparticles and a phenolic uncoupler using microdroplet-based two-dimensional approach

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Article information


Submitted
27 Apr 2010
Accepted
11 Nov 2010
First published
13 Dec 2010

J. Environ. Monit., 2011,13, 410-415
Article type
Paper

Synergistic effects of metal nanoparticles and a phenolic uncoupler using microdroplet-based two-dimensional approach

A. Funfak, J. Cao, A. Knauer, K. Martin and J. M. Köhler, J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 410
DOI: 10.1039/C0EM00162G

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