Basic aspects of DNA electrochemistry with a strong focus on the use of modified nucleobases as redox probes for electrochemical bioanalysis are reviewed. Intrinsic electrochemical properties of nucleobases in combination with artificial redox-active nucleobase modifications are frequently applied in this field. Synthetic approaches (both chemical and enzymatic) to base-modified nucleic acids are briefly summarized and their applications in redox labelling are discussed. Finally, analytical applications including DNA hybridization, primer extension, PCR, SNP typing, DNA damage and DNA–protein interaction analysis are presented (critical review, 91 references).
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