The structure and dynamics of the interfacial layers between the extremely pure air- and water-stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and Au(111) has been investigated using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. The in situscanning tunnelling microscopy measurements reveal that the Au(111) surface undergoes a reconstruction, and at −1.2 V versusPt quasi-reference the famous (22 × √3) herringbone superstructure is probed. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that multiple ion pair layers are present at the ionic liquid/Au interface which are dependent on the electrode potential. Upon applying cathodic electrode potentials, stronger ionic liquid near surface structure is detected: both the number of near surface layers and the force required to rupture these layers increases. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results reveal that three distinct processes take place at the interface. The fastest process is capacitive in its low-frequency limit and is identified with electrochemical double layer formation. The differential electrochemical double layer capacitance exhibits a local maximum at −0.2 V versusPt quasi-reference, which is most likely caused by changes in the orientation of cations in the innermost layer. In the potential range between −0.84 V and −1.04 V, a second capacitive process is observed which is slower than electrochemical double layer formation. This process seems to be related to the herringbone reconstruction. In the frequency range below 1 Hz, the onset of an ultraslow faradaic process is found. This process becomes faster when the electrode potential is shifted to more negative potentials.
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