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Issue 14, 2011
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Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

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The development of wearable screen-printed electrochemical sensors on underwater garments comprised of the synthetic rubber neoprene is reported. These wearable sensors are able to determine the presence of environmental pollutants and security threats in marine environments. Owing to its unique elastic and superhydrophobic morphology, neoprene is an attractive substrate for thick-film electrochemical sensors for aquatic environments and offers high-resolution printing with no apparent defects. The neoprene-based sensor was evaluated for the voltammetric detection of trace heavy metal contaminants and nitroaromatic explosives in seawater samples. We also describe the first example of enzyme (tyrosinase) immobilization on a wearable substrate towards the amperometric biosensing of phenolic contaminants in seawater. Furthermore, the integration of a miniaturized potentiostat directly on the underwater garment is demonstrated. The wearable sensor-potentiostat microsystem provides a visual indication and alert if the levels of harmful contaminants have exceeded a pre-defined threshold. The concept discussed here is well-suited for integration into dry- and wetsuits worn by divers and recreational surfers/swimmers, thereby providing them with the ability to continuously assess their surroundings for environmental contaminants and security hazards.

Graphical abstract: Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

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Publication details

The article was received on 07 Mar 2011, accepted on 18 Apr 2011 and first published on 02 Jun 2011

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1AN15193B
Citation: Analyst, 2011,136, 2912-2917

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    Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

    K. Malzahn, J. R. Windmiller, G. Valdés-Ramírez, M. J. Schöning and J. Wang, Analyst, 2011, 136, 2912
    DOI: 10.1039/C1AN15193B

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