Study on the selectivity in the electrophilic monofluorination of 2,3-allenoates with Selectfluor™: an efficient synthesis of 4-fluoro-2(5H)-furanones and 3-fluoro-4-oxo-2(E)-alkenoates†
Different from the reaction of 2,3-allenoic acids with Selectfluor™, 4-fluoro-2(5H)-furanones and (E)-3-fluoro-4-oxo-2-alkenoates were highly selectively generated from 2,4-disubstituted 2,3-allenoates with Selectfluor™ under different conditions in moderate yields. The reaction of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 2,3-allenoates afforded the corresponding 4-fluoro-2(5H)-furanones highly selectively with up to 95% yield under different conditions. The scope of the substrates has been carefully explored. Due to the more readily availability of 2,3-allenoates as compared to 2,3-allenoic acids, new 4-fluoro-2(5H)-furanones were prepared. Based on the isolation and characterization of the minor fluorohydroxylation product E-5m, a mechanism has been proposed.