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Issue 3, 2010
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Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker1,6-hexamethylene diamine

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Abstract

Urine amine levels used as biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure have usually been normalized with creatinine concentration. The suitability of using creatinine concentration or specific gravity for these biomarkers in exposure assessment has not been established. We investigated the effect of creatinine concentration and specific gravity on urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in multiple mixed linear regression models using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters occupationally exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI exposure were monitored for an entire workday for up to three workdays spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Both creatinine concentration and specific gravity were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of urine HDA levels. When these two were used together in the same model, creatinine remained highly significant (p < 0.0001), but specific gravity decreased in significance (p-values 0.10–0.17). We used different individual factors to determine which affected creatinine and specific gravity. Urine collection time was a highly significant predictor of specific gravity (p = 0.003) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.001). Smoker status was significant (p = 0.026) in the creatinine model. The findings indicate that creatinine concentration is more appropriate to account for urine water content than specific gravity and that creatinine is best used as an independent variable in HDI exposure assessment models instead of traditional urine normalization with creatinine concentration.

Graphical abstract: Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine

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Article information


Submitted
08 Oct 2009
Accepted
08 Jan 2010
First published
10 Feb 2010

J. Environ. Monit., 2010,12, 591-599
Article type
Paper

Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine

L. G. T. Gaines, K. W. Fent, S. L. Flack, J. M. Thomasen, L. M. Ball, H. Zhou, S. G. Whittaker and L. A. Nylander-French, J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 591 DOI: 10.1039/B921073C

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