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Issue 4, 2010

Tautomerism of the natural thymidine nucleoside and the antiviral analogue D4T. Structure and influence of an aqueous environment using MP2 and DFT methods

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Abstract

A comparative theoretical conformational analysis of the tautomerism of the four most stable conformers of the antiviral analogue D4T (stavudine) and natural thymidine (Thy) nucleosides was carried out, by using the B3LYP and MP2 quantum chemical methods. The calculated structure data and energy values of the tautomers were compared with the T1 keto form and with the results determined for the thymine molecule. For each conformer, only two stable enol forms, T3 and T5, were obtained when considering different positions of hydrogen around the base. Tautomer T3 always appears more stable than T5, and more stable in the natural nucleoside Thy than in thymine or in D4T.

The effect of water on the tautomers was estimated by using an explicit number of up to five water molecules to surround the nucleoside, and also by Tomasi’s polarized continuum model (PCM). A total of about 200 clusters were optimised and the geometrical parameters and energies discussed. The water net differs in the three tautomers of D4T and Thy. Depending on the nature of the tautomers, cyclic, distributed water molecules, or clustered structures are formed. The deformation and interaction counterpoise (CP)-corrected energies between the nucleoside and water molecules were determined. The relative stabilities of all tautomers were established. The microhydrated environment stabilizes remarkably the enol forms more than the canonical keto one, although this one continues being the most stable. The changes in the intramolecular H-bondings and in the total atomic charges were discussed. Intramolecular H-bonds being stronger in D4T than in Thy could indicate a higher molecular flexibility for Thy.

Graphical abstract: Tautomerism of the natural thymidine nucleoside and the antiviral analogue D4T. Structure and influence of an aqueous environment using MP2 and DFT methods

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
30 Jul 2009
Accepted
28 Oct 2009
First published
04 Dec 2009

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010,12, 881-893
Article type
Paper

Tautomerism of the natural thymidine nucleoside and the antiviral analogue D4T. Structure and influence of an aqueous environment using MP2 and DFT methods

M. Alcolea Palafox and N. Iza, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 881 DOI: 10.1039/B915566J

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