Smart surfaces can alter their macroscopic properties on demand. Over the past decade, a variety of approaches have been pursued to create reversibly switchable surfaces, which were triggered by several different stimuli. For instance, stimuli-responsive polymers or self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be employed to produce switchable surfaces that bind or release cells and proteins in response to external stimuli. Furthermore, anisotropic particles may be used to alter surface properties by controlling particle orientation relative to an interface. This article highlights a selected number of recent developments related to dynamically controlled biointerfaces, discusses some of their prospective applications, and attempts to outline future directions and challenges in this rapidly emerging field.
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