Applying cognitive theory to chemistry instruction: the case for worked examples
The case for chemistry instruction based on worked examples is presented, using a contemporary model of human learning. We begin by detailing human cognitive architecture and outlining the Interactive Compensatory Model of Learning (ICML). Through the ICML, the role of motivation, deliberate practice and feedback are detailed as key variables in the development of expertise. Using instructional examples, the strategy of worked example-based learning is described and contrasted with more open-ended forms of instruction. The learning mechanism inherent in instruction based on worked examples is shown to be theoretically consistent with the principles of the ICML.