Wastewater treatment works effluent is often considered to be one of the most important point sources of a wide range of anthropogenic contaminants to aquatic systems, however, this paper discusses other potential sources. With the aim of establishing the important sources of UV filters, insect repellent and biocides to the aquatic environment, samples were collected from sites with direct (bathing areas and marinas) and indirect (sites receiving wastewater effluent) human influences. Sunscreens containing UV filters are used in large volumes during the summer months and often applied shortly before a person enters the water for swimming activities. The results presented here demonstrate that washing directly from the skin is an important point source of 4 UV filters to the Oslofjord. The insect repellent, diethyl toluamide, was also measured and it was concluded that washing from the skin was not such an important point source into the fjord. Concentrations of the biocide Irgarol 1051 were also measured and were elevated in the small boat marina and surrounding enclosed area. This work demonstrates that mans recreational water-based activities are a diffuse source of some contaminants into coastal and fjord environments and this study provides an initial assessment of the levels being released.
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