Fluorinated organic materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications: the role of the fluorine atom
In this article we highlight, by means of selected examples drawn from work performed in our or other laboratories, the features of some classes of fluorinated conjugated materials and their use in electronic devices such as electroluminescent diodes or field effect transistors. A variety of fluorinated conjugated systems, either molecular or polymeric, such as poly(phenylenevinylene)s, poly(phenyleneethynylene)s, polythiophenes, polyphenylenes, are dealt with. Attention is also focused on a different class of electroluminescent compounds, represented by the cyclometalated iridium complexes with various forms (mer and fac). In particular, fluorine atoms lower both the HOMO and LUMO energy levels. Consequently, the electron injection is made easier, the materials display a greater resistance against the degradative oxidation processes and organic n-type or ambipolar semiconducting materials may result. Moreover, the C–H⋯F interactions play an important role in the solid state supramolecular organization, originating a typical π-stack arrangement which enhances the charge carrier mobility.