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Issue 13, 2005
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Computational studies of 13C NMR chemical shifts of saccharides

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The 13C NMR chemical shifts for α-D-lyxofuranose, α-D-lyxopyranose 1C4, α-D-lyxopyranose 4C1, α-D-glucopyranose 4C1, and α-D-glucofuranose have been studied at ab initio and density-functional theory levels using TZVP quality basis set. The methods were tested by calculating the nuclear magnetic shieldings for tetramethylsilane (TMS) at different levels of theory using large basis sets. Test calculations on the monosaccharides showed B3LYP(TZVP) and BP86(TZVP) to be cost-efficient levels of theory for calculation of NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrates. The accuracy of the molecular structures and chemical shifts calculated at the B3LYP(TZVP) level is comparable to those obtained at the MP2(TZVP) level. Solvent effects were considered by surrounding the saccharides by water molecules and also by employing a continuum solvent model. None of the applied methods to consider solvent effects was successful. The B3LYP(TZVP) and MP2(TZVP) 13C NMR chemical shift calculations yielded without solvent and rovibrational corrections an average deviation of 5.4 ppm and 5.0 ppm between calculated and measured shifts. A closer agreement between calculated and measured chemical shifts can be obtained by using a reference compound that is structurally reminiscent of saccharides such as neat methanol. An accurate shielding reference for carbohydrates can be constructed by adding an empirical constant shift to the calculated chemical shifts, deduced from comparisons of B3LYP(TZVP) or BP86(TZVP) and measured chemical shifts of monosaccharides. The systematic deviation of about 3 ppm for O1H chemical shifts can be designed to hydrogen bonding, whereas solvent effects on the 1H NMR chemical shifts of C1H were found to be small. At the B3LYP(TZVP) level, the barrier for the torsional motion of the hydroxyl group at C6 in α-D-glucofuranose was calculated to 7.5 kcal mol−1. The torsional displacement was found to introduce large changes of up to 10 ppm to the 13C NMR chemical shifts yielding uncertainties of about ±2 ppm in the chemical shifts.

Graphical abstract: Computational studies of 13C NMR chemical shifts of saccharides

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Apr 2005, accepted on 24 May 2005 and first published on 09 Jun 2005

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B505546F
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005,7, 2561-2569
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    Computational studies of 13C NMR chemical shifts of saccharides

    S. Taubert, H. Konschin and D. Sundholm, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 2561
    DOI: 10.1039/B505546F

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