Nanoelectrodes, nanoelectrode arrays and their applications
This review deals with the topic of ultrasmall electrodes, namely nanoelectrodes, arrays of these and discusses possible applications, including to analytical science. It deals exclusively with the use of nanoelectrodes in an electrochemical context. Benefits that accrue from use of very small working electrodes within electrochemical cells are discussed, followed by a review of methods for the preparation of such electrodes. Individual nanoelectrodes and arrays or ensembles of these are addressed, as are nanopore systems which seek to emulate biological transmembrane ion transport processes. Applications within physical electrochemistry, imaging science and analytical science are summarised.