This article provides a review about electroluminescence from organic materials and deals in detail with organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), light-emitting electro-chemical cells (LECs) and electrogenerated chemilumi-nescence (ECL) reflecting different electrooptical appli-cations of conjugated materials. It is written from an organic chemist's point of view and pays particular attention to the development of organic materials involved in corresponding devices. In recent years a substantial amount of both academic and industrial research has been directed to organic electroluminescence in an effort to improve the processability and tunability of organic materials and the longevity of OLEDs and LECs. On the eve of the commercialization of organic electrolumi-nescence this review provides an overview of lifetimes and efficiencies attained and reflects materials and device concepts developed over the last decade. In this context electrogenerated chemiluminescence is discussed with respect to its importance as a versatile tool to simulate the fundamental electrochemical processes in OLEDs.