Effects of pH and solvent on the fluorescence properties of biomedically important benzamides. Application to determination in drugs and in human urine
The fluorescence properties of five substituted benzamides, including alizapride, metoclopramide, sulpiride, sultopride and tiapride, were investigated at several pH values and in various solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, propan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran and water). Except for alizapride, the fluorescence intensities were found to be higher at acidic (1–6) than at alkaline (8–12) pH values. Using the optimum solvent (aqueous solutions) and appropriate pH conditions, linear spectrofluorimetric calibration curves were established over a concentration range of about two orders of magnitude, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.996. Limits of detection were between 1 and 13 ng ml–1, depending on the compound. The method was applied to the determination of benzamides in pharmaceutical preparations and in human urine, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 108% and from 93 to 104%, respectively.