Electrophilic aromatic substitution. Part V. Nitration by nitric acid in carbon tetrachloride
Nitration of some benzene homologues by anhydrous nitric acid in carbon tetrachloride is shown to have characteristics which indicate that the nitronium ion is the effective electrophile. The small increase in rate on lowering the temperature is attributed to the effect of the variation in temperature on the formation of aggregates of nitric acid molecules from which the nitronium ions are produced. It is suggested that the results of some previous work on this system were affected by a heterogeneous reaction.