Nanoscaled porphyrinic metal–organic frameworks: photosensitizer delivery systems for photodynamic therapy†
The photocytotoxic activity of porphyrin-containing materials including metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) has attracted ever increasing interest. We have developed a simple synthesis of hexagonal PCN-222/MOF-545 nanoparticles, which are powerful in inducing reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells upon visible light irradiation. The extent of the cytotoxic effect well correlates with the nanoparticle size and structural instability. High phototoxicity of the presented nanoparticles and their deactivation within several hours open up the door to possible applications in cancer therapy.