In vitro osteogenic induction of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with a decellularized matrix derived from human adipose stem cells and in vivo implantation for bone regeneration
Tissue engineering technology that adopts mesenchymal stem cells combined with scaffolds presents a promising strategy for tissue regeneration. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have attracted considerable attention in bone engineering for their osteogenic potential. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for the stem cell niche as a physical support and is known to be able to maintain stem cell properties. In this study, the ECM derived from ADSCs was produced and termed the ADM. The ADM was demonstrated to markedly promote proliferation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) and exhibited strongly osteogenic simulative effects in vitro. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red S (ARS) staining, osteogenic gene markers and proteins were significantly up-regulated. Next, we developed a poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) mesh scaffold coated with the ADM and evaluated its capacity to create an osteogenic microenvironment. BMSCs were cultured on the composite scaffolds and subjected to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The results showed that the composite scaffolds facilitated the osteogenesis more than a simple PSeD scaffold. Then the PSeD/ADM scaffold seeded with BMSCs was used to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in rats, which significantly enhanced the reparative effects as confirmed via micro-CT, sequential fluorescent labeling and histological observation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the ADM could promote both proliferation and osteogenesis of BMSCs, and the combination of ADM and PSeD synergistically stimulated bone formation, which may provide a novel scheme for bone regeneration.