Bio-based amines through sustainable heterogeneous catalysis
The production of amines from biomass is a growing field of interest. Particularly the amination of bio-based alcohols receives a lot of attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The substrate scope for the production of bio-based amines is not limited to (hemi)cellulosic alcohols. Other platform chemicals that originate from different biomass fractions, such as lignin, oils, chitin and protein, are also suitable feedstock for the production of amines. This comprehensive review first provides an overview of the available bio-based feedstock candidates. The following section is devoted to the sustainable reaction routes that are available to carry out the desired amination reactions. Next, state-of-the-art technologies are summarized for each substrate class, focussing on heterogeneous catalysis. Special attention is dedicated to the sustainability of the discussed reaction routes. Finally, a critical discussion is provided, together with current challenges and future perspectives regarding the industrial production of bio-based amine chemicals.
- This article is part of the themed collection: International Symposium on Green Chemistry 2017