Optimizing sampling strategies for NMR-based metabolomics of human feces: pooled vs. unpooled analyses†
This study focused on elucidating fecal sample collection for 1H NMR-based metabolite profiling. Pooled vs. unpooled feces sampling was compared to determine if single unpooled samples are adequate and representative for NMR based metabolomics of feces. Our results show that the metabolome of unpooled fecal samples varied within the individual (day-to-day variation). This variation could mainly be ascribed to fluctuations (CV > 40%) in the level of the metabolites glucose, lactate, and succinate. Consequently, our data suggest that multiple sampling and pooling of fecal samples could be considered to minimize errors arising from day to day variation in fecal sample.