Liquid crystalline nanoparticles encapsulating cisplatin and docetaxel combination for targeted therapy of breast cancer†
Cancer remains a leading cause of death. A combination of anticancer agents can effectively kill cancer through multiple pathways; however, improvements to their delivery are needed. Hence, docetaxel and cisplatin-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles with folic acid were prepared for effective and targeted anticancer therapy. Notably, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/cisplatin complexes in 0.9% NaCl solution were used for the prevention of possible aquation of cisplatin, which would otherwise lead to severe adverse effects. The optimized nanoparticles exhibited small particle size, high drug loading capacity (>90%), and controlled drug release profiles. In vitro cell cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the optimized nanoparticles were taken up by folate receptor-expressing cells to a greater extent than non-folate expressing cells, which is attributable to folate-specific endocytosis of the optimized nanoparticles. Enhanced expression of apoptotic markers (Bax, p21, and cleaved caspase-3) along with enhanced anti-migration effects in MDA-MB-231 cells following treatment suggests that the optimized nanoparticles provide an effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer. These results were further supported by in vivo findings obtained for a MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft model. Altogether, the optimized nanoparticles may potentially be developed as an effective treatment modality for folate-targeted metastatic breast cancer treatment.