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Issue 2, 2015
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Assessing the energy and environmental performance of algae-mediated tertiary treatment of estrogenic compounds

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Abstract

This study uses a systems-level modeling approach to illustrate a novel synergy between municipal wastewater treatment and large-scale algaculture for production of bio-energy, whereby algae-mediated tertiary treatment provides efficient removal of unregulated, strongly estrogenic steroid hormones from the secondary effluent. Laboratory results from previously published studies suggested that algae-mediated treatment could deliver roughly 75–85% removal of a model estrogen (17β-estradiol) within typical algae pond residence times. As such, experimental results are integrated into a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) framework, to assess the environmental performance of an algae-based tertiary treatment system relative to three conventional tertiary treatments: ozonation, UV irradiation, and adsorption onto granular activated carbon. Results indicate that the algae-mediated tertiary treatment is superior to the selected benchmarks on the basis of raw energy return on investment (EROI) and normalized energy use per mass of estrogenic toxicity removed. It is the only tertiary treatment system that creates more energy than it consumes, and it delivers acceptable effluent quality for nutrient and coliform concentrations while rendering a significant reduction in estrogenic toxicity. These results highlight the dual water and energy sustainability benefits that accrue from the integration of municipal wastewater treatment and large-scale algae farming.

Graphical abstract: Assessing the energy and environmental performance of algae-mediated tertiary treatment of estrogenic compounds

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
11 Oct 2014
Accepted
18 Nov 2014
First published
18 Nov 2014

Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015,17, 421-428
Article type
Paper

Assessing the energy and environmental performance of algae-mediated tertiary treatment of estrogenic compounds

L. M. Colosi, E. P. Resurreccion and Y. Zhang, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015, 17, 421
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00541D

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