Bone cement based nanohybrid as a super biomaterial for bone healing
A novel nanohybrid based on bone cement has been developed which is capable of healing fractured bone in 30 days, one-third of the time required for the natural healing process. Nanohybrids of bone cement based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), currently used as a grouting material in joint replacement surgery, were prepared by simple mixing with organically modified layered silicates of varying chemical compositions. The temperature arising from exothermic polymerization in one of the nanohybrids is 12 °C lower than that in pure bone cement, thus circumventing the reported cell necrosis that occurs during implantation with pure bone cement. The thermal stability and mechanical superiority of this nanohybrid were verified in terms of its higher degradation temperature, better stiffness, superior toughness, and significantly higher fatigue resistance compared with pure bone cement; these properties make it appropriate for use as an implant material. The biocompatibility and bioactivity of the nanohybrid were confirmed using cell adhesion, cell viability, and fluorescence imaging studies. Osteoconductivity and bone bonding properties were monitored in vivo in rabbits through radiographic imaging and histopathological studies of growing bone and muscle near the surgery site. The observed dissimilarity of the properties of two different nanoclays used as fillers were visualized through interactions measured using spectroscopic techniques. Studies of the influence of different elements on bioactivity showed a higher efficiency for the nanoclay containing greater amounts of iron.