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Issue 12, 2006
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Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

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Abstract

A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤10 mL min−1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order to discretely introduce appropriate extract volumes to the detector at a given time and with a given dilution factor. The proposed hyphenated method demonstrates excellent performance for on-line monitoring of major and trace elements (Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) released when applying the various extracting reagents as addressed in the BCR scheme, that is, 0.11 M CH3COOH, 0.1 NH2OH·HCl and 30% H2O2, even when a well recognized matrix-sensitive detector, such as ICP-MS, is used. As a result of the enhanced temporal resolution of the ongoing extraction, insights into the breaking down of phases and into the kinetics of the metal release are obtained. With the simultaneous multielement detection capability of ICP-MS, the dynamic fractionation system presents itself as an efficient front-end for evaluation of actual elemental association by interelement comparison of metals leached concurrently during the extraction time. Thus, the intimate elemental association between Cd and Zn in contaminated soils could be assessed.

Graphical abstract: Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

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Article information


Submitted
04 Sep 2006
Accepted
18 Oct 2006
First published
26 Oct 2006

J. Environ. Monit., 2006,8, 1248-1254
Article type
Paper

Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

J. Buanuam, K. Tiptanasup, J. Shiowatana, M. Miró and E. Harald Hansen, J. Environ. Monit., 2006, 8, 1248
DOI: 10.1039/B612721E

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