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Fluorophore-modified oligonucleotides (ONs) are extensively used in mechanistic biological studies, molecular diagnostics, drug research, biotechnology and materials science. In this chapter, we describe the synthesis, properties and applications of ONs modified with various classes of fluorophore-functionalized locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, which display photophysical properties that are difficult to mimic with more flexible and synthetically more readily accessible building blocks.