The preparation of synthetic nucleic acids has been possible for several years, but their use as molecular tools has recently been enhanced by the addition of other groups. These include enzymes, fluorophores and small molecules. Modification to the DNA bases or backbone can also improve biological stability and increase sensitivity. Written by leaders in the field, this volume describes the preparation and application of these DNA-conjugates. Several have been used as biological sensors (aptamers, riboswitches and nanostructures). Others link reporter groups such as proteins or fluorophores to RNA or DNA for detection, single molecule studies, and increasing the sensitivity of PCR. The book will interest researchers in related areas of chemistry, biology and molecular pharmacology.